Autism is a neurological developmental disability that hampers normal brain development, affecting communication, social interaction, cognition, and behavior.
Autism is known as a spectrum disorder because its symptoms and characteristics appear in a variety of combinations that affect children in different ways. Some children may have severe challenges and would need help while others may be able to manage their tasks independently, with less help.
Earlier, each condition (autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome) was diagnosed seperately but now, these conditions are grouped together and are called as autism spectrum disorder.
The early signs of autism can be observed during the first three years of a child's life. These signs may vary from being mild, moderate, to severe. Also, the signs may vary from one child to another, and may change as the child grows. A child with severe cognitive impairment and motor skills may also develop epilepsy. However, a specific set of behaviors are indicators of the condition.
Note: Lack of autism awareness delays the parents' ability to identify symptoms at an early stage.
The following traits can be observed in a child during the physiological and psychological developmental phase.
Conditions that co-exist with autism: Other conditions like mental retardation, hyperactivity, motor difficulties, seizures, learning disability, hearing or visual impairment may co-exist with autism.
Children with autism may have some of these difficulties:
A differential diagnosis is conducted to rule out the existence of some other disorders, including:
A child with autism has their own strengths and talents. Parents and teachers need to focus on these positive aspects and encourage the child to make the most of it.
We often focus on the weaknesses rather than the strengths of a person. A child with autism has certain abilities and aptitude, which parents, therapists, and teachers need to identify and encourage the child to make the most of his or her talents and skills.
The child may exhibit some of these skills:
The exact cause for autism is still not known but research indicates that it may occur due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental factors could be a variety of conditions affecting brain development, which can occur before, during or soon after birth. It is also observed that any damage to the central nervous system during infancy can cause autism.
Autism is a lifelong condition and there is no cure, but the right therapy or intervention can help the child learn the necessary skills to improve the quality of their life. Since autism can be detected when the child is 18 months old or much earlier, developmental support can be provided quite early for a better outcome.
Important note to parents:As a precautionary measure, parent can request pediatricians to conduct routine developmental tests to check if the child has met developmental and language milestones.
There is no single medical test for diagnosing autism but a set of specific evaluations and assessments to confirm the condition. Some of the assessments include:
The aim of the treatment is to target behaviors that will help the child improve their abilities to integrate into schools, develop meaningful relationships, and to increase the possibility of maintaining independent living as adults.
Treatment interventions aim to increase socially acceptable and prosocial (positive behavior intended to promote social acceptance and friendship) behavior, decrease odd behavior and improve verbal and non-verbal behavior.
Children with autism can make significant progress if the psychological intervention they receive is structured and consistent.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA):One-to-one sessions are conducted to help the child develop cognitive, social, behavioral, fine motor, play, and self-help skills. The child is taught to work on structured tasks ranging from simple to complex ones. Each task is further broken into sub tasks and the child is taught to learn and complete each sub task at a time. This method uses rewards or reinforcement to help the child learn and maintain desired behaviors and skills. The child's progress is tracked and measured. Types of ABA include:
Note:Therapies or interventions are designed to reduce some of the developmental problems faced by a child with autism. As we know that each child may have a different problem, parents and experts work together and decide on which therapy works best for the child and continue with it. It must be noted that a treatment that works well for a child may not be effective for another child because autism affects each person differently.
Some therapies can be part of a complete treatment program for a child with autism:
Developmental, Individual Differences, Relationship-Based Approach (DIR - also called "Floortime"):Focuses on emotional and relational development (feelings, relationships with caregivers). It also focuses on how the child deals with sights, sounds, and smells.
Occupational therapy: Teaches skills to enable the child live as independently as possible. Skills might include dressing, eating, bathing, and relating to people.
Sensory integration therapy:Helps the child deal with sensory information like sights, sounds, and smells. Sensory integration therapy could help a child who is bothered by certain sounds or does not like to be touched.
Speech therapy:Speech therapists work with the child and help improve communication. They use alternate methods like gestures, picture boards, etc., to help the child learn how to express his/her thoughts and ideas to others.
Music therapy: Singing, composition, and live music making are used in this form of therapy.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS):Picture symbols or cards are used to teach communication.
Early intervention: Research shows that early intervention treatment can greatly improve a child’s development. This program can be started as soon as the child is diagnosed, even when the child is 6 months old. The intervention focuses on the core areas affected by autism - social skills, language and communication, imitation, play skills, daily living and motor skills. The program actively engages parents in the intervention, both in decision making and the delivery of treatment. Therefore, it is important to talk to your child’s doctor as soon as possible if you think your child has autism or any other developmental problem.
Parental training: Parental programs help distraught parents who need support and counseling. Training parents in the concepts and skills of behavioral modification will help them work along with the therapists to help the child. Most importantly, the parent's determination to help their child may result in considerable improvement in the child's language, cognitive abilities and social behavior.
Parents or guardians go through enormous stress and can be quite distraught when they know that their child is diagnosed with autism. Parents spend most of the time with the child as they need to take the child for treatment, therapy, counseling, intervention program, school, etc. Many parents, especially mothers leave their jobs and become full time caregivers for their child. A lot of adjustments happen at home, siblings learn to adapt their life around their special brother or sister, family members provide more support, activities and plans are made keeping the child's interest in mind, and so on. Raising a child with autism can be challenging. However, when armed with the right knowledge, guardians can make better choices for the child.
In this situation, as a parent and caregiver, you can:
It is essential that schools, colleges, and universities provide equal opportunities and facilities for children with special needs. Despite legal provisions and government programs for children with disabilities, educational institutions prefer not to admit such children and provide additional facilities like individualized education plan, alternate methods of learning, etc.