A learning disability is a neurological condition which affects the brain's ability to send, receive, and process information. A child with a learning disability may have difficulties in reading, writing, speaking, listening, understanding mathematical concepts, and with general comprehension. Learning disabilities include a group of disorders such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia. Each type of disorder may coexist with another.
Note:Learning disabilities are not caused due to physical or mental illness, economic condition, or cultural background; neither do they indicate that the child is weak or lazy.
Definition of learning disabilities
The federal definition of learning disabilities, laid down by the US Government in Public Law 94-142, has been adopted in India:
“Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, spell or to do mathematical calculations.
The term includes such conditions as perceptual handicaps, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.
The term does not include children who have learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor handicaps, or mental retardation, emotional disturbance or environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages."
Courtesy: (Federal Register, 1977, p. 65083) (Karanth, 2002)
Some children begin as slow learners but are eventually able to learn and cope with their studies and other activities. Some children may not be interested in specific types of learning (learning a new language, a specific activity or skill, or academic subject), or may not be interested in sports or other outdoor activities. These attributes indicate the child's interests and are not indicative of a learning disability.
“Stigma, underachievement and misunderstanding of LD continue to be stubborn barriers for parents and children to overcome. If LD is left unaddressed, millions of individuals risk being left behind, burdened by low self-esteem, subjected to low expectations, and diminished in their ability to pursue their dreams.” – James H. Wendorf, Executive Director, National Center for Learning Disability
Experts say that there is no single, specific cause for learning disabilities. However, there are some factors that could cause a learning disability:
Heredity: It is observed that a child, whose parents have had a learning disability, is likely to develop the same disorder.
Illness during and after birth: An illness or injury during or after birth may cause learnign disabilities. Other possible factors could be drug or alcohol consumption during pregnancy, physical trauma, poor growth in the uterus, low birth weight, and premature or prolonged labor.
Stress during infancy: A stressful incident after birth such as high fever, head injury, or poor nutrition.
Environment: Increased exposure to toxins such as lead (in paint, ceramics, toys, etc.)
Comorbidity: Children with learning disabilities are at a higher-than-average risk for attentional problems or disruptive behavior disorders. Up to 25 percent of children with reading disorder also have ADHD. Conversely, it is estimated that between 15 and 30 percent of children diagnosed with ADHD have a learning disorder.
In the normal physiological development, the child is expected to acquire a certain set of basic cognition and motor skills. Any significant delay or gap in this development could be a sign of learning disability. A series of well-researched and proven tests and assessments have to be conducted before diagnosing the condition.
Note: In general, 5 percent of school age children are affected by learning disabilities. Children with a learning disability may also have ADHD.
The signs of LD may vary slightly during each stage of childhood.
Preschool: The child may have some of these difficulties in preschool.
Primary School: The child may have difficulty in:
Middle School: The child may have difficulty in:
High School: The child may have difficulty in:
Note: While children with learning disabilities have difficulties in some areas of learning, they also have great aptitude, skill and talent in other areas of their interest. Most often, we focus on the disorder and neglect the child's talents or skills. It is important that parents and teachers recognize this hidden potential and encourage the child to pursue them.
Identifying a learning disability is a complex process. The first step is to rule out vision, hearing, and developmental issues that can overshadow the underlying learning disability. Once these tests are completed, a learning disability is identified using psychoeducational assessment, which includes academic achievement testing along with a measure of intellectual capability. This test helps determine if there is any significant discrepancy between a child's potential an dperformance capability (IQ) and the child's academic achievement (school performance).
A learning disability cannot be cured. However with timely intervention and support, children with learning disabilities can be successful in school. Parents and teachers are the first persons to notice that the child is finding it difficult to read, write or learn. If you think that your child may have a learning disability, seek help from a mental health expert or other trained specialists for the required intervention program or therapy.
Note: Early detection can help the child benefit from treatment or therapy. Neglecting the condition may affect the child's ability to cope with the condition.
If your child has a learning disorder, your child's doctor or school might recommend:
Extra help: A reading specialist or other trained professional can teach your child techniques to improve his or her academic skills. Tutors can also teach children organizational and study skills.
Individualized Education Program (IEP): Your child's school or a special educator might develop an IEP that will describe how a child can best learn in school.
Therapy: Depending on the learning disorder, some children might benefit from therapy. For example, speech therapy can help children who have language disabilities. Occupational therapy might help improve the motor skills of a child who has writing problems.
Complimentary/alternative therapy: Research shows that alternative therapies like music, art, dance can benefit children with learning disabilities.
Parents and experts need to set goals and assess if the child is improving with the selected mode of intervention and support. If not, alternative methods can be chosen to help the child.
LD is identified after a series of tests conducted by a team of specialists. The following specialists may work together to help diagnose and treat a child’s LD.